Behaviour management of the classroom, is very complex, based on a hierarchical system of beliefs, controlled by the acceptance of behaviour within dominant culture. Teachers within their established learning areas are expected to create harmonious, safe environments that produce socially acceptable beings who will make a positive contribution to society. This duty is a great one with many perils as the school “social” structure is a place where the majority of its population, are members of differing subcultures, who, throughout their development aim to defy the “system” which strives to control and shape them into model citizens. This could be considered to be deviant behaviour although very typical of human development. Can then, the teacher mould the future generation and develop their interpersonal skills? An arduous task that involves a great deal of intuition from the teacher, who must identify the needs of all pupils and cater for them, to promote a positive haven where safety, trust and security is key.
This paper aims to uncover aspects of behaviour and behaviour management based on the evidence and experience of a student teacher during their teaching practice at two placement schools, reflected critically against established academic writing.
To preserve anonymity the schools shall be identified as “[i]School A”, an Outstanding school according to Ofsted, and “[ii]School B”, a Satisfactory school, while the student teacher shall be referred to as “Student.”
Models of Behaviour
Models of behaviour can be clearly split into two categories within the school environment, compliant or deviant, yet each has varying levels of complexity, relevant to the individuals circumstances. These can be broken down into a selection of variables such as; “immediate situation, general background, teacher, school, student and home” (Cole and Chan, 1987). Each element can be favourable or unfavourable, as one would expect, reflecting general life.
These models are not exclusive to each child as they can sway from behaviour to behaviour depending on the implied classroom strategy.
Clearly conforming to schools’ regulations, the compliant child is effectively a model citizen, adhering to the role set out by society and therefore exudes assertive behaviour and a positive attitude towards learning.
Assertive behaviour is:
• positive in language and behaviour;
- effective in communication
- calm and self-controlled.
Non-compliant pupils become viewed as anti-social, thus deviant. Deviant behaviour varies depending on the current beliefs and norms within dominant culture and is recognised when Macionis describes this as a “violation of cultural norms.” The most familiar representation of deviancy, is crime, translating this into an educational context would be noted as juvenile delinquency, yet unlike crime this is generally considered as a “passing phase.” Whilst the educational environment echoes the moral boundaries of societal behaviour, deviance is only perceived through the definition of what a school will find acceptable depending on its organisational structure and form of “social control.” Crime therefore can be behaviour such as not adhering to the school uniform policy and for example wearing large gold hoop earrings to more serious offences like physical assault.
Deviancy can be broken down into categories, passive or aggressive.
Passive behaviour tends to be:
Aggressive behaviour tends to be:
- •rigid and authoritarian
Through the existing power struggles determined between the “rule making and rule breaking” (Macionis), deviants attempt to establish their own position within an educational subculture that unknowingly emulates their foreseeable designated roles within society. Macionis discusses the reflection of social inequality when he states “people we commonly consider deviants share the trait of powerlessness.” This would imply pupils from low socio-economic backgrounds are more likely to behave in a deviant way, Cohen’s opinion on delinquency affirms that it is more pronounced “in lower class youths because they have the least opportunity to achieve” these theories shall be the clear foundation as both schools are situated amongst areas of social deprivation and exclusion. Quoting Spitzer, Macionis states “people who cannot or will not work risk being labelled deviant” and there is clear correlation between grades and performance regarding the socially excluded as Petrides’ (et al, 2002) paper highlights the relationship “that trait EI (emotional intelligence) is relevant to scholastic achievement and deviant behaviour at school, especially for disadvantaged and vulnerable adolescents.”
The implications set out for deviant behaviour are generally negative but Covington (1999) quoting Durkheim’s argument,
“…crime is an inevitable and normal aspect of social life. A limited amount of crime is necessary and beneficial to society, so much so that society could not exist without some form of deviance.”
As schools reflect society, this would suggest that without the presence of deviance, schools would not be able to function. MacBeath describes how “people in positions of leadership” break the rules in order “to get things done.” He suggests “it might be argued” that the 1990’s political climate has given “a license for deviance to school leaders.” Headteachers were able “to indulge in creative accounting” an element that is still evident today as School B has a deficit of £350k, yet there was a £40k discrepancy for ‘cleaning services’ that had gone unnoticed by the Board of Governors affirming MaBeath’s analogy of creative accountancy and Macionis’ view of “social power.” With this abuse of power, should teachers expect the pupils, not to engage in deviant behaviour, according to the TES “one of the most cited reasons for teachers leaving the profession,” and desist in the existing power struggle when it is clearly one rule for one and different for another. If corruption and deviancy occurs within senior management, can the objective of educating pupils, social norms and values, occur through teachers, acting as role models and “agents of socialisation and control,” implementing school rules and expecting pupils to adhere to them. It is important then to understand the structure of rules.
“Rules are there to be broken.”
The classroom setting is built upon rule structure and forms of behaviour acceptable to the social norms within a school which are usually set in place to promote a positive learning environment. Rules are initially set out by the school, as a whole school policy, this is then usually adapted within each faculty according to the learning environment. Sturt referencing Stone (1990) highlights five areas to be considered when drawing up rules
2.students’ respect and care for others
3.property in the classroom
4.students’ efforts at learning
5.obedience to the teacher
As discussed the variants of deviant behaviour do not intentionally begin with malice but classroom rules manifest themselves in various forms and are not always clear. Rules therefore need to be established as early on in the term, considering the pupils’ opinions. This task is quite difficult for any student teacher to undertake in an already established classroom setting, as the foundations have already been built and the student’s appearance can result in a compromising struggle of power between themselves and the pupils as their expectations may be very different to that of the host teacher.
The hierarchical system of beliefs begins with the unspoken rules, the norms.
Right and wrong are clearly defined words but not so in practice. Society is built upon unspoken rules, norms and social expectations, which are generally thought of as “do unto others as you would have them do to you.” This quote has different meanings for many individuals, as those clearly from deprived, low socio-economic groups with low emotional intelligence will have a very different interpretation of what “that doing” is. Unspoken rules according to Moore (1989) are aimed mainly at adults and so it is from the teacher’s own expectations and morality that unspoken rules are based which would be considered generally as basic manners. One must consider the behaviour variables of a pupil, if not conforming to the required norms, it is then that the unspoken must take on a new form, written.
Written rules are usually displayed within the classroom setting for all pupils to see, as a reminder of the unspoken.
1.Arrive on time, fully equipped and place your planner open on your desk.
2.Do as you are told by staff – first time, every time.
3.Listen carefully when requested by the teacher.
4.Put your hand up and wait for permission to speak.
5.Work to the best of your ability in every lesson.
6.Always record homework and deadlines in your planner.
7.Stand in silence at the end of the lesson until you are dismissed.
Spoken rules according to Moore (1989) should be “clearly stated, consistent and as few as possible.” These can be used to reinforce the already established, not yet adhered to, unspoken and written. After ending half term on a bad note, whereby the Student kept the pupils in 5 minutes after school as punishment for not being quiet during register and persistently talking after two verbal warnings which resulted in the Student shouting and losing control, at School B in February the Student returned to implement a new classroom strategy. They initially delivered the written classroom rules, as stated in the previous section, emphasising 2,3 and 7. With the written rules clarified the Student explained the first new spoken rule, whereby the class would sit in silence for one minute whilst the register was being taken. If any member of the class spoke the Student would start the register again, from the beginning, and any seconds over the given minute would be added on to the registration on Friday afternoon after school. The pupils questioned how the Student arrived at the time, a minute, to which the reply was “a second for each of your names, a second for each reply and 12 seconds spare.” This the pupils disputed and on the first day of implementation, the register took 5 minutes 26 seconds, indicating the beginning of the power struggle, and over the week the pupils accumulated 8 minutes 52 seconds to the end of their Friday. Surprisingly by the end of the week, on Friday morning the register was taken in 39 seconds and to be consistent and fair, 21 seconds were removed from the total. Alongside the no speaking during registration was the second new spoken rule which accompanies written rule number 7, where the pupils are given 30 seconds to stand behind their chairs in silence. This regularly takes 90 seconds plus and the time over is also added to the Friday registration. After a few days of unsuccessful attempts the Student demonstrated how to stand behind a chair in silence and was timed by the host teacher. The result was 5 seconds, although this strategy has not yet been successful, the pupils are however getting better and during registration at the end of the second week the pupils were so well behaved and quiet that the Student did not know what to do apart from smile inside. The Student should have offered praise or a reward.
Reward schemes accompany the positive discipline policy as an incentive to promote good behaviour in both of the subject schools. School A uses a series of Positive Referrals, which pupils collect and deposit into a post box. These are counted at the school office and recorded in the Bromcom system
1. A school ethos of encouragement is central to the promotion of good behaviour. Rewards are one means of achieving this. They have a motivational role in helping students to realise that good behaviour is valued, and are clearly defined in the procedures. Integral to the system of rewards is an emphasis on praise both informal and formal to individuals and groups.
School B uses a stamp system, where student collect stamps from lessons which accumulate into credits. These credits are recorded in their planner and the teacher counts them and writes down the total on a form which is then sent to the office who then issue a certificate on completion of each page. The certificates are in order of importance using precious gems and metals as their names.
SECTION 4 – REWARDS
This is the key to Positive Discipline. A rewards framework which encourages the active and direct involvement of as many teachers and pupils as possible is vital to the success of the system. It is essential that all pupils are given the opportunity to operate within the rewards framework.
1. Sanctions are needed to respond to inappropriate behaviour.
2. A range of sanctions are clearly defined in the procedures and their use will be characterised by clarity of why the sanction is being applied and what changes in behaviour are required to avoid future sanctions. The procedures make a clear distinction between the sanctions applied for minor and major offences.
SECTION 5 – SANCTIONS FOR BREAKING THE CLASSROOM RULES
All teachers have a responsibility to design and deliver interesting and well planned lessons. These must be in accordance with department policies and schemes of work.
Normal classroom management skills are to be employed and only if these fail do we use P.D. sanctions.
Sturt lists the typical hierarchy of sanctions
4.warnings one two and three
5.sanctions related to the behaviour problem
7.time out, kept in at play
9.report to teacher
10.letter home from head teacher
11.on report to head teacher
12.formal warning letter from head teacher
15.five-day exclusion (Governors meets)
16.permanent exclusion (Governors meeting, local education authority involved)
BEHAVIOUR MANAGEMENT The key to good behaviour management is clear, consistent & shared expectations.
The subject teacher will:
1.Use a range of responses to any incidents of disruptive behaviour (including internal faculty sanctions).
2.Share their rules and expectations with the class (this is best done in the first lesson you take with them) and be clear about what sanctions they will use and follow them through BUT
2.Reward good behaviour rather than punish bad.
3.Be assertive but try to avoid confrontation.
4.Remain calm and avoid shouting whenever possible.
5.Treat each student as an individual and be flexible and adaptable in their approach.
6.Fully use incident slips and BROMCOM codes and ask for form tutor/YAL/Assistant Headteacher / class reports at the start of the lesson. Students know that these will be followed up.
7.Involve and seek the support of the form tutor, HoF, YAL, and parents.
8.Use CLASS SUPPORT only if all else fails. Class Support will try to reintegrate the student back into the lesson
Models of Discipline
Behaviour management, the name given to the more ‘aggressive’ act of discipline, is founded on models which have been designed and constructed based generally on educational psychology and psychoanalytical theories. Their aim, to offer a solution to the manifestation of the varying behaviours shown within the classroom environment. There are many recognised models of discipline, this paper will specifically focus on Dreikurs and apply his model to classroom situations.
Rudolf Dreikurs, an American psychiatrist, has based his work on the theories of [iii]Adler, whereby human behaviour is motivated by the desire to achieve a certain aim, goal or purpose. His theory proposes that, “The need to belong is the fundamental motivator of human behaviour” and the negative behaviour displayed by a child stems from the feeling of isolation and social exclusion in an environment where they do not feel they belong. Their behaviour can manifest itself, either passively or aggressively, in the following four simplistic mistaken ways, according to Dreikurs.
- •Attention seeking
- •Power seeking
- •Revenge seeking
- •Withdrawal / avoidance
Attention seeking behaviour can manifest itself on many levels in both acceptable and unacceptable ways. A compliant pupil with an assertive behaviour would display socially acceptable behaviours and achieve at a high level as discussed earlier. Unacceptable forms of behaviour that occur within the classroom and take time away from learning are:-
- •to misbehave
- •to be disruptive and lazy
- •to ask for favours
- •to throw things
- •to cry, yell, fight
These reactive, disruptive behaviours do not always involve discord.
Power seeking behaviour is where a pupil attempts to gain control over the classroom environment. Whilst in registration with a Year 7 class at School B the Student asked the class to be quiet whilst they took the register, yet most of the pupils continued to chat amongst themselves. One pupil decided to scream “QUIET” in an attempt to control the class. This display sees the pupil’s effort to gain acceptance or significance from the teacher and class through acting as a leader yet this strategy only causes disruption. Their mistaken behaviour attempting to control the class results in the apparent loss of control by the pupil as they themselves were unable to follow the Student’s instruction.
During registration in the same class, the Student offered an incentive. This was an invitation to a party on the Student’s last day for all the pupils who do not get five written comments in one week for the rest of the term, and in effect do not receive a detention. The response was mixed as the pupils were quite surprised although the typically deviant pupils responded with “we don’t want to come to your party anyway. It will be rubbish.” This revenge seeking behaviour indicates the pupils unwillingness to co-operate, with the intention to hurt the Student in order to gain some satisfaction from the hurt they’re feeling in that they do not belong, unable to identify that it is their behaviour that does not belong, not them as a person. This act could also be linked to avoidance and failure, where the pupil has already given up on the attempt of becoming a better behaved class member because of their feelings of inadequacy. This theory is backed up by the consistent misbehaviour from one “deviant” pupil, who, through using low level strategies such as forgetting their glasses, claiming they cannot see the board, creates a situation where they are unwilling to challenge themselves, whilst also implementing more confrontational techniques such as refusing to sit in his seat amongst his peers. Quite regularly does this pupil obtain twelve written comments a week from other teachers, a sign that their behaviour is consistently poor and sadly will not be attending the Student’s party. It is characters like this that can bring the classroom alive if their energy is channelled productively.
In order for the Student to remedy the pupil’s behaviour reference was made to Dinkmeyer and Dinkmeyer’s (1976, cited in Sturt) procedures that breakdown Dreikurs’ model. Initially the Student queried the amount of written comments in the pupil’s planner and why they were not concerned about detention. Their reply was “I have other things on my mind.” The Student uncovered that there were family variables, where the pupil’s parents had separated, the mother had taken in a new boyfriend, which was the cause of the misbehaviour. Whilst discussing the Student determined the pupil’s motives and discovered they were misbehaving in order to cause disruption at home with the hope of the boyfriend leaving. Explaining the flaws in the pupil’s mistaken goal and how the discipline and aggravation would occur at both school and home the pupil was able to understand the consequences with a hope to applying a better behaviour strategy.
Dreikurs’ model builds upon logical consequences where the pupil is more autonomous and responsible for their own behaviour, therefore faces the outcomes if the behaviour becomes deviant. Edwards(1993) cited in Sturt “notes it also promotes respect between teachers and students.” Sturt continues to explain “it may be over-simplistic to categorise all behaviours in the four classes of goals and to attribute all misbehaviour to mistaken assumptions about how to achieve goals” and that, “clear logical consequences can’t always be arrived at for all behaviours, or for all students.” We must consider further corrective strategies with the aim to prevent misbehaviour.
Corrective strategies can take form in both prevention and solution within the school context. Di Giulio (2006) states there are four dimensions within corrective strategies, which are, “Spiritual, Physical, Instructional and Managerial.”
The Spiritual dimension is communication and key within the behaviour management strategy of a classroom. As a tactic, the Student, whilst teaching a lesson “Publishing on the web” displayed a previously prepared website that offered a personal insight into their history. They had created 4 pages that contained images of themselves growing up combined with an amusing caption. This approach from the Student, offering the pupils little bits of information regarding their life is a means of forming positive, caring relationships with the pupils as Cothran et al. (2003) discovered that pupils “believed that part of getting to know each other was for the teacher to open up.” This produced a positive work environment where the pupils were engaged and saw a purpose to their work creating an improved level of autonomy.
Building a positive learning environment is the Physical dimension where pupils safety and security are essential for successfully managing behaviour, as identified on the second level of [iv]Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The environment is not just the positive climate and inviting classroom surroundings, as physical appearance plays a huge part in behaviour from both teacher and pupil. As stated in the Student’s Periodic Report from School A, pupils and staff frequently commented on the Student’s attire. This appearance gained respect and co-operation from the pupils as Hawley et al (2007) discusses how physical attractiveness is seen as power. Reaffirming this a member of staff in School B whilst introducing herself to the Student and querying who they were stated “you look more important than a student.” From the teacher’s point of view, the physical attractiveness of a pupil can have a detrimental effect if this becomes a self fulfilling prophecy as pupils who were seen to be without beauty were often neglected by their teachers as they were seen as low achievers and in areas of social depravation and social exclusion this is quite common. The Student whilst in School B was timetabled with a vocational year 10 group, with severe behavioural difficulties, a reduced timetable and whom according to the majority of staff “teachers of 25 years cannot teach them.” They typified socially excluded pupils and “chav” culture with their appearance. On their first meeting the Student’s initial presence provoked an aggressive response from the pupils which in turn created bad impression whereby the Student refused to teach the pupils for the six hours they had been timetabled. Combining social aggression and the perceived unattractiveness of the pupils, formed negative expectations of academia and achievement from the Student. After a few lessons the pupils and Student were able to build relationships as the pupils found the Student “cool” and the girls in the group found the Student “cute and attractive” which created the foundations for a positive learning environment. This relationship has prevented the self fulfilling prophecy as Tauber (1998) discusses owing to the Student removing those “initial expectations” regarding attractiveness.
The third dimension is Instructional. Autonomous learners feel a greater sense of achievement, which can be promoted through Assessment for Learning, a strategy used successfully in outstanding School A, but not yet adopted satisfactory School B. Engaging the year 10 group in School B with a creative brief involving designing video where the pupils had to create an awareness campaign highlighting the dangers of unprotected sex, substance abuse or smoking. These topics, relevant to the socially excluded and as Halsey et al discovered “that themes, stimuli and creative activity worked successfully when they appeared to be relevant and meaningful to the young people.” Another contributing factor to improving their behaviour is knowing that the Student was previously a designer providing “authenticity” to the project. Instructed by the Head of Department to “just get them to a pass” the Student introduced the assessment criteria to the group and using AFL the Student was able to promote positive self discipline as the pupils saw the goals and knew what they had to do to achieve. This inspired some pupils to aim toward Merit and Distinction grades, becoming more than what is expected of them. The Student gave the pupils responsibility where they were allowed to go out and film within the building on their own. This increased creativity and engagement within the pupils combined with the feeling of trust, producing fantastic results.
The Managerial dimension sees the solution strategy of teacher intervention. Howarth describes the purpose and method of interventions
- •Allow the teacher to change the mood speed and activities of the class.
- •Interventions should be clear, well directed, effective and easily read by the student.
- •They should be as non-confrontational as possible
As the whole structure of behaviour management is built on a hierarchical system of behaviour, rules, rewards and sanctions, so is the teacher intervention strategy.
An example where we can appreciate the role of society on conscience is the differences in moral standards across cultures (Bandura, 1963).
This quote still rings true today as cultural beliefs and expectations seemingly play a huge role within behaviour. School A, a predominantly Asian school of which approximately 80% are Muslim, employs a positive discipline strategy and detention scheme with pupil co-operation, yet School B, a 95% Caucasian school of no denomination, struggles with the implementation of positive discipline and detentions. School A holds hour detentions after school which pupils attend on time and has been known that pupils have arrived and the teacher has forgotten, so the pupils leave after waiting five minutes for the teacher, showing clear responsibility and acceptance of consequence. Yet in School B a team of teachers who are free during last lesson, period 5, ‘round the pupils up’ 15 minutes before the end, ensuring they attend a twenty minute detention, a third of the time compared to School A. Clearly this method of removal not only impedes on the learning of the pupils but interferes with the “free time” of staff. Whilst being escorted, the pupils regularly run away, not attending their detention and facing the consequence. This defiance, results in a spell in isolation, a period that most pupils like as they are removed from their lessons and have escaped the detention which did not impinge on their personal time. Although with the spell in isolation, another detention is issued, but the process begins again. Yet if the pupil misses the second detention their parents are contacted, a threat which does not seem to bother the pupils. This lack of pupil self discipline and sense of responsibility is clearly quite alarming and does not aim to produce socially acceptable beings.
To improve behaviour, it is essential that pupils are offered the opportunity to prove themselves by being given responsibility and not over controlled as this will result in rebellion. Responsibility is essential in creating inclusive pupils who are able to act acceptably and communicate effectively, understanding the consequences for their actions. As Ogden (2006) deconstructs Freud’s psychosexual theories, he highlights that responsibility and autonomy occurs in the formation of the superego whereby the child develops a conscience and guilt. Blum (1985) outlines the “superego issues related to family and culture, social exclusion and persecution.”
Behaviour management therefore must not be seen to over control pupils but to encourage and develop the superego, forming social inclusion through learning consequence, acquisition of a conscience, and hence guilt.
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A MODEL POLICY FOR SCHOOL A
1. The Governing Body believes that in order to enable effective teaching and learning to take place, good behaviour in all aspects of school life is necessary. It seeks to create a caring, learning environment in the school by:
• promoting good behaviour and discipline;
• promoting self-esteem, self-discipline, proper regard for authority and positive relationships based on mutual respect;
• ensuring fairness of treatment for all;
• encouraging consistency of response to both positive and negative behaviour;
• promoting early intervention;
• providing a safe environment free from disruption, violence, bullying and any form of harassment;
• encouraging a positive relationship with parents and carers to develop a shared approach to involve them in the implementation of the school’s policy and associated procedures.
Roles and Responsibilities
2. The Governing Body will establish, in consultation with the Headteacher, staff and parents, the policy for the promotion of good behaviour and keep it under review. It will ensure that it is communicated to students and parents, is non-discriminatory and the expectations are clear. Governors will support the school in maintaining high standards of behaviour.
3. The Headteacher will be responsible for the implementation and day-to-day management of the policy and procedures. Support for staff faced with challenging behaviour is also an important responsibility of the Headteacher.
4. Staff, including teachers, support staff and volunteers, will be responsible for ensuring that the policy and procedures are followed, and consistently and fairly applied. Mutual support amongst all staff in the implementation of the policy is essential. Staff have a key role in advising the Headteacher on the effectiveness of the policy and procedures. They also have responsibility, with the support of the Headteacher, for creating a high quality-learning environment, teaching good behaviour and implementing the agreed policy and procedures consistently.
5. The Governing Body, Headteacher and staff will ensure there is no differential application of the policy and procedures on any grounds, particularly ethnic or national origin, culture, religion, gender, disability or sexuality. They will also ensure that the concerns of students are listened to and appropriately addressed.
6. Parents and carers will be expected to take responsibility for the behaviour of their child both inside and outside the school. They will be encouraged to work in partnership with the school to assist the school in maintaining high standards of behaviour and will have the opportunity to raise with the school any issues arising from the operation of the policy.
7. Students will be expected to take responsibility for their own behaviour and will be made fully aware of the school policy, procedure and expectations. Students also have a responsibility to ensure that incidents of disruption, violence, bullying and any form of harassment are reported.
8. The procedures arising from this policy will be developed by the Headteacher in consultation with the staff. The procedures will make clear to the students how acceptable standards of behaviour can be achieved and will have a clear rationale which is made explicit to staff, students and parents. The procedures will be consistently and fairly applied and promote the idea of personal responsibility and that every member of the school has a responsibility towards the whole community.
9. A school ethos of encouragement is central to the promotion of good behaviour. Rewards are one means of achieving this. They have a motivational role in helping students to realise that good behaviour is valued, and are clearly defined in the procedures. Integral to the system of rewards is an emphasis on praise both informal and formal to individuals and groups.
10. Sanctions are needed to respond to inappropriate behaviour.
11. A range of sanctions are clearly defined in the procedures and their use will be characterised by clarity of why the sanction is being applied and what changes in behaviour are required to avoid future sanctions. The procedures make a clear distinction between the sanctions applied for minor and major offences.
12. The Governing Body will ensure the appropriate high quality training on all aspects of behaviour management is provided to support the implementation of the policy.
Interrelationship with other school policies
13. In order for the behaviour policy to be effective, a clear relationship with other school policies, particularly equal opportunities, special educational needs and anti-bullying, has been established.
Involvement of outside agencies
14. The school works positively with external agencies. It seeks appropriate support from them to ensure that the needs of all students are met by utilising the range of external support available.
15. The Headteacher, in consultation with the staff, will undertake systematic monitoring and conduct regular reviews of the behaviour management policy and procedures in order to evaluate them to ensure that the operation is effective, fair and consistent. The Headteacher will keep the Governing Body informed.
16. The Governing Body will regularly review this policy and associated procedures, to ensure its continuing appropriateness and effectiveness. The review will take place in consultation with the Headteacher, staff and parents.
17. The outcome of the review will be communicated to all those involved, as appropriate.
26 April 2004
SCHOOL B HIGH SCHOOL
PUPIL BEHAVIOUR & DISCIPLINE
Good behaviour and discipline in school are essential to successful teaching & learning.
The school plays a significant part in promoting the spiritual, moral and cultural development of its young people. The ethos of this school as specified in its aims, includes reference to the values which matter in school and the community, including respect for each other, self, property, honesty, trust & fairness.
This school, like most others is largely successful in promoting good behaviour and discipline. However, the behaviour of a proportion of pupils is unacceptable.
We believe we are entitled to the support of parents & guardians and will always try to enlist this; we have to accept that it is not always forthcoming.
The school’s positive behaviour policy sets out the behaviour expected of pupils, rewards to encourage this and sanctions and procedures available for instances of unacceptable behaviour.
The style and atmosphere of the school itself, including the demeanour of the staff is acknowledged to be of significance in encouraging an atmosphere of respect for others.
Teachers are expected to follow good practice and show respect for pupils: clear rules, clear instructions, clear work and behaviour requirements. Misbehaviour should be handled quickly & fairly, work designed to be appropriate to pupils’ needs, lessons started and ended on time and with a minimum of interruptions.
A sense of responsibility and consideration among pupils may be fostered by positively acknowledging acts of consideration, giving responsibility of caring for younger or new pupils, commending behaviour to parents and encouraging public reward of pupils who demonstrate commendable attitude and conduct.
Heads & teachers have legal authority to impose reasonable punishment. These punishments and the behaviours likely to incur them should be known to parents and pupils and must be administered fairly and consistently.
Punishment of whole groups is rarely (if ever) appropriate. Punishment should be in proportion to the offence.
Humiliating or degrading punishments are not acceptable.
Those who provoke or lead misbehaviour should be dealt with accordingly.
Exclusion is used sparingly. Alternatives to exclusion include:
internal exclusion (pupil working on their own), “close supervision” (pupil attached to one senior member of staff), serial loss of free time, referral by HoY to Mentor.
Any significant incident(s) or patterns of unacceptable behaviour will be communicated to parents. When possible, close consultation and partnership will be promoted with parents/guardians including ongoing review meetings or contact.
When school is made aware of stresses within the family, consideration will be made of the implications of these problems.
Preliminary factors considered when exclusion may be used;
• age & state of health of pupil
• pupil’s previous record at this school
• particular personal (eg; domestic) circumstances
• extent of peer (or parental) pressure
• degree of severity of the behaviour, frequency & likelihood of its recurring
• whether the behaviour impaired the functioning of the school (ie its effect on other pupils & staff) or whether the behaviour impaired the safety of pupils or adults
• whether the behaviour was on the school premises, on the way to or from school or while pupil was in the care of the school (eg of site activities)
• degree of violation of school’s behaviour policy and its relative importance
• whether the incident was perpetrated by one pupil or the pupil as part of a group – scapegoating is to be avoided
• whether it would be more relevant to use another strategy including reference to outside support agencies such as Educational Psychology or welfare agencies.
*** In all cases of exclusion, Education Leeds guidelines & procedures are followed strictly ***
A set of principles, rules, routines and procedures which:
• Is designed to enhance the learning and social environment of the school.
• Represents a framework for the conduct of members of the school community.
• Provides a hierarchical range of responses to promote positive behaviour at all levels.
• States the range and use of responses for those who do not act in acceptable ways.
• Incorporates mechanisms to maintain and review procedures.
The extent to which pupils’ attitudes and actions, contribute to or restrict~
• Standards of achievement
• Effective learning in the classroom
• The quality of life in the school
• The functioning of the school as an orderly community
The extent to which the school’s policies, procedures and practices contribute
• Good behaviour
• The quality of life in the school
• The functioning of the school as an orderly community
• The development of self-discipline
Additional to these:
• Data on exclusions and referrals
• Views of pupils, parents and teachers on incidence of bullying and the school’s response
• Rewards and sanctions
POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR & DISCIPLINE
As well as aiming for the highest possible academic achievement for all our students, School B High School considers standards of good behaviour and appearance to be of the utmost importance.
We are proud of our existing and improving reputation for being a school in which visitors are treated in a friendly, courteous and helpful manner.
1) Merit System
Teachers are encouraged to award Merits for particularly good work or effort in class. These should be recorded on the “Personal Achievement Record” pages in the Student Planner/Homework Diary. Pupils will then take their merits to their Head of Year / School who will keep a record and also place a Merit Sticker in the planner. At the discretion of the Head of Year / School, when an appropriate number has been achieved by an individual, a commendation, signed by the Head will be presented in the Head’s office. Achievement of a third commendation will result in a personal letter from the Head being sent to the successful student’s parents. Any pupil achieving 5 Commendations, will be awarded a Gold Merit for inclusion in their RoA. Further categories of certificate may be devised.
Teachers are urged to make use of this reward and to consider giving merits to all Year groups, including those in Upper School.
2) House Points
From September 2002, house points will relate only to extra curricular activities.
Form tutors are invited to grant 1, 2 or 3 house points per pupil at the end of each term for general conduct and contribution to the form. Pupils who take part in activities/clubs/teams and form discussions and who behave & attend well (thus contributing to form attendance results), will deserve 3 points. Those who do not make a positive contribution to form or school life may not be given any points.
Sports activities and competitions already generate house points.
Opportunities exist within ALL subject areas to develop house activities and competitions.
Prizes will be awarded to the winning house.
Staff are assigned membership of a house.
POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR & DISCIPLINE Continued (2)
3) Attendance Certificates
Attendance certificates and entry into a prize draw are awards for good and improving attendance as well as time bonuses and class trips.
4) Record of Achievement
Pupils input to the record should include Gold merits/commendations, attendance certificates, & certificates of involvement in school activities (eg Residentials), as well as details of personal achievements not necessarily associated with school (eg membership of community sports clubs or activities).
There are times when pupils step out of line and behave inappropriately. Misconduct should never be condoned or ignored and sanctions when used should be applied consistently with firmness and fairness.
Many of our pupils rarely misbehave so that the framework of expected behaviour and values is intended to provide an environment in which they can learn and develop positively. For this majority of pupils, the system of referral and sanctions is the protection which allows them to be confident and to benefit from their school life in a comfortable and positive atmosphere.
A small minority of pupils “test” the system persistently for a variety of reasons. These pupils must always be dealt with appropriately or referred to a proper authority in order to maintain the comfortable working atmosphere for which FPHS strives. Staff who follow the principles and guidelines outlined as follows and combine them with the positive recognition of success, will find that they work effectively in most cases. If they appear not to be having success, staff can expect and rely on the support and further action of colleagues, the Pastoral Team and the Head.
DISCIPLINE WITHIN THE CLASSROOM
Good behaviour and positive attitudes towards work may be encouraged in pupils when they consistently experience the following:
1) A prompt start to lessons.
2) A controlled business-like classroom atmosphere.
3) An orderly finish to lessons.
4) Appropriate teaching styles and differentiation of work.
5) Careful lesson preparation, and regular, prompt marking of class and homework with appropriate feedback.
6) Recognition of good work through merits, house points and display.
7) Sharing of teaching objectives/targets and evaluation of them through RoA.
8) Insistence in all departments and areas of school life on consistently good standards of work and behaviour.
9) Application of overtly fair and reasonable standards equitably to all members of groups.
10) Consistent expectation of good organisation by pupils in bringing correct equipment, keeping to deadlines, use of Student organisers and asking for help.
POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR & DISCIPLINE Continued (3)
ATTITUDES to be ENCOURAGED
1) Respect for others.
2) Respect for property and environment.
3) Common courtesy.
4) Listening and responding appropriately.
5) Respect for positive attitudes and achievements.
ATTITUDES & ACTIONS WHICH SHOULD NOT BE TOLERATED
1) Bullying of any kind.
2) Bad language – including insults, racial abuse and reference to drug abuse.
3) Excessive or inappropriate noise – including shouting out.
5) Lack of proper equipment or preparation for lessons.
6) Leaving room untidy.
7) Eating in class or registration – including chewing gum.
8) Wearing outside clothing in class or registration.
9) Moving around or leaving the room without permission.
10) Disturbing the work of others.
11) Graffiti or vandalism
12) Violence – even in play.
DISCIPLINE OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM
THE STANDARD OF BEHAVIOUR THROUGHOUT THE SCHOOL AT School B CAN BE KEPT HIGH BY THE DETERMINED, UNITED AND CONSISTENT EFFORT OF ALL THE STAFF.
Positive behaviour outside the classroom sets the tone for good behaviour within lessons.
The key areas and times are as follow:
1) The beginning and end of each school session.
2) Breaks and lunchtimes
3) Lesson changeovers – it would be helpful & beneficial if staff stand at classroom doors and oversee transfers.
4) Whenever pupils are outside the room during lesson time (eg toilet trips).
5) Assemblies, including arrival and departure.
Staff should INSIST upon:
1) Punctuality and prompt return to lessons when whistle blows.
2) Orderly movement and care with bags.
3) Care & consideration towards others.
4) Reasonable levels of noise and use of language.
POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR & DISCIPLINE Continued (4)
Staff should treat as unacceptale:
1) Bullying of any kind or degree, or threatening behaviour.
2) Spitting, swearing or chewing gum.
3) Smoking on the premises or on the way in to or out of the school grounds.
4) Litter or (especially in the dining room) mess.
5) Graffiti, vandalism or abuse of property or facilities.
8) Leaving the premises without permission.
9) Rowdy behaviour.
10) Association with drug culture (including comments and graffiti).
DEALING WITH UNACCEPTABLE BEHAVIOUR.
For minor infringements of standards, it is usually sufficient for an offending pupil to be told firmly and quietly that the behaviour is unacceptable and must not occur again. Any apologies necessary to staff, peers or visitors should be made on the spot, and the matter closed.
If the situation is deemed by the member of staff to be more serious, then a range of sanctions or referral will be resorted to……
Separating pupil(s) within the room.
Asking pupil to wait outside for a moment to cool off. (Beware of unsupervised misbehaviour outside room).
Keeping the pupil or sub-group of pupils behind at end of lesson.
NB: It is rarely (if ever) justifiable to punish a whole class of pupils. Usually, at least some will be behaving acceptably.
NB: Pupils may not be delayed at a hometime for more than up to 10 minutes without prior warning to parents and consideration should always be given to transport problems & domestic situations such as collecting younger siblings.
Break or lunchtime detention(s) under supervision of teacher.
1/2 hour detention after school under supervision of teacher. In this case, a detention form should be filled in and a copy given to the pupil and one to the Head of Year / School. The forms are available in the school office and must allow at least 24 hours notice.
For any detention, activity should be provided. This may be lines, work, incident report or a task appropriate to the behaviour such as graffiti removal or litter collection.
POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR & DISCIPLINE Continued (5)
After any incident of significantly bad behaviour or after noticing repeated or a pattern of unacceptable behaviour, please will colleagues complete an Incident Report (obtainable from school office) and give to Head of Year / School. This is essential even though the situation may have been dealt with fully because it is necessary for the Pastoral team to be kept informed of deterioration in pupils’ behaviour and to note trends developing.
All sections should be completed.
REFERRAL of Pupils for Disciplinary Action:
If a member of staff has a continuing concern over a pupil’s behaviour, would like assistance in dealing with a situation or considers an incident to demand more serious measures, then the support of the pastoral team is readily available.
It is important to make referrals through a chain of hierarchical command in order to retain flexibility in dealing with pupils and to allow for increasing pressure if necessary by climbing further rungs of the pastoral ladder.
In the first instance it can be useful to discuss small problems with the pupil’s form tutor who may be able to offer an experienced perspective on the miscreant or put pressure on the pupil to make a fresh start.
If the misbehaviour appears to relate to curriculum issues, it may be helpful to discuss the situation with the Head of Department regarding group organisation etc. or the possibility of temporary / permanent transfer of pupil. Similarly, the SEN Coordinator may be able to assist in situations particularly those involving pupils with learning difficulties.
If you consider an incident or trend in behaviour demands further sanction or investigation, referral may be made at the end of the lesson via an incident slip to the Head of Year / School. Such a referral will always be followed up as soon as possible (although not necessarily immediately) and you will be kept informed and if relevant, involved.
In the first instance, Head of Year / School may choose to introduce longer
(1 hour) detentions, or multiple detentions. Periods of isolation or internal exclusion may also be operated.
School B operates a policy of involving parents when concerned about pupil behaviour so parents may be invited by Head of Year / School to come to school to discuss strategies and possibly to fix follow up meetings to monitor progress.
POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR & DISCIPLINE Continued (6)
If an incident is of major significance, referral should be made or assistance requested immediately.
Such misbehaviours would include violence, verbal abuse to staff, persistent disobedience / absolute refusal to do as told, eg to remove coat etc.
In these instances, the referral should be made immediately to the Head of Year / School or in his / her absence, to any member of senior management or staff. NB: Ideally, as stated before, the chain of command is followed as usual.
The emergency referral may be made in any convenient, safe and efficient way. Eg: telephone to a pastoral office, phone to school office with message, send reliable pupil to get assistance, enlist help from nearby Head of Department or colleague.
Colleagues are particularly requested not to tolerate any instance of “backchat” and to take immediate action at one of the above levels.
NB: Do not send pupils to Pastoral Office without first ascertaingin HoY is available.
NB: Do not leave a class unsupervised by a teacher.
If a pattern of unacceptable behaviour develops, strategies which may be employed include:
– Daily report to form tutor (Yellow)
– Daily report to Head of Year (Red)
– Pastoral support programme.
– Referral to Learning Mentor
– Referral to Pupil Referral Service – Outreach
– Referral to Pupil Referral Service – Dual Registration
– Referral to Learning Support Unit
– Short term exclusion(s)
– Permanent exclusion
Letter from Student to Senior Management
To: MCU, ASM, DPO, ARY
Re: 10voccit incident on 4 March 2008
During my initial meeting with 10voccit it became apparent that these pupils engage quite regularly in “inappropriate” behaviour in and outside school and are incredibly vocal about their actions. I believed it in the best interests of this group to educate them about the consequences their actions could have. During my time working with the group I have had some quite frank and interesting discussions regarding unprotected sex, smoking and substance abuse.
The class has divided into groups, each tackling one of the issues in the aim of creating an awareness campaign aimed toward 13 – 16 year olds about the dangers of the aforementioned topics.
I felt that the students would respond well given responsibility to film on their own, increasing creativity without the presence of a teacher. On 2 previous occasions a group had filmed within the school, alone, and created some very pleasing, interesting and creative work, returning to the classroom, with the equipment undamaged, inspired and motivated. I believed this was possible again and on the 4 March the same group of girls continued their filming in the toilets using the props I had supplied them. After filming they returned to the class and continued with their work. The second group of girls were also allowed to film their sequence in the toilets (the toilets used for the set as this is a refuge within the school environment for pupils). Whilst they were filming they were approached by JNE who asked for a note in their planner. JNE came up to see me and I followed her down to the toilets. She aired her concerns about the girls being in the toilet as they had apparently been truanting in there the previous lesson. I explained what they were doing. Entering the girls toilet I was hit by the smell of smoke, a smell not uncommon coming from the toilets of both sexes in the Tech block. Asking the girls if they had been smoking, their reply was “no we haven’t, we haven’t even got our bags with us so we couldn’t have.” I was unaware that PUPIL had been smoking until the footage had been retrieved from the camera. I had not given the girls permission to smoke in the toilets and as far as I was concerned they were tackling the subject of teenage pregnancy, not smoking. Although their actions are incredibly inappropriate and illegal, the footage highlights the incidence of pregnant mothers smoking which was quite inventive, showing their engagement and knowledge of the topic and offers an opinion which is quite admirable.
Within 10voccit are 2 pupils who are tackling smoking. We have been trying to arrange for them to capture some footage of smokers but have been unsuccessful in doing this for the last 2 weeks as it has not been convenient for myself and the pupils to meet off the school site at lunch. This inconvenience clarifies that I have not allowed any pupil to engage in smoking within the school grounds as had I have allowed this behaviour the footage would have been captured 2 weeks ago. This idea has now evolved and has been shot (6 March) within the school grounds without the use of a lit cigarette or anyone smoking.
Regarding the incident of filming, “rolling a joint,” I believe I acted in the best interests of the pupils in keeping the shooting of the video within the classroom as had I have let the boys out to film, the footage captured would have been more inappropriate. We were using the FRANK statistic of “1 in 3 people have taken drugs” and the “joint” would signify the “1.”
I realise that my liberal approach has resulted in some quite inappropriate behaviour, but my intentions are to engage the pupils using topics that they relate to in the hope of educating them not only in ICT but aspects relevant to their life.
I sincerely apologise for causing any concern and the resulting behaviour of 10voccit and shall readdress my approach to this topic with immediate effect adhering to the structure set out by ARY.
[i] “School A” is a larger than average mixed comprehensive school for 1,402 students aged 11-18 of whom 309 are in the sixth form. The school is located approximately 1 mile outside the city centre. The area is recognised as having significant socio-economic deprivation and a high proportion of students are eligible for free school meals. Nearly all of the students are from minority ethnic backgrounds and the majority speak English as an additional language. The students’ attainment on entry to the school is well below average and a higher than average number of students have learning difficulties and/or disabilities. In September 2006 it acquired specialist college status for mathematics and computing.
[ii] “School B” is smaller than average with a small sixth form. It is, however, growing and serves a catchment that includes areas of social and economic disadvantage. The great majority of pupils are from White British backgrounds and a higher than average number of pupils are eligible for free school meals. The proportion of pupils with learning difficulties and/or disabilities is below average, although the number of pupils with statements to support special educational needs is broadly average. It is also part of the Building Schools for the Future proposals which will take effect from 2009, when the school will admit 1200 pupils. A new headteacher was appointed in September 2005.
Alfred Adler was a General Practitioner and a Psychiatrist who lived in Vienna, Austria. In the last eleven years of his life, he devoted most of his time to teaching, lecturing and travelling in England, Scotland, Scandinavia, Germany and the United States, where he eventually settled. He died while on tour in Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1937.
As the founder of Individual Psychology, he is amongst the most important figures in 20th Century psychology. (The term Individual Psychology refers to the indivisible nature of the human personality).
Originally a colleague of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, Adler resigned from Freud’s Psychoanalytic Society in 1911 due to growing differences in their respective theories. In particular, Adler disputed Freud’s assertion that sex or libido is the fundamental drive which determines human behaviour. Rather, Adler argued that human beings strive to belong and to overcome early feelings of inferiority through the construction of personal and subjective goals. Adlerians stress the unity of the mind, body and spirit and the interactions between individuals and the larger community.
Many of his approaches are well suited to the 21st Century and his work is today more relevant than ever before. His jargon-free lectures and books for the general public are characterized by a crystal clear common sense and applicable for use in ever day life.